By Gordon Kerr
A comprehensive creation to the sprawling heritage of this huge, immense continent, from the sunrise of human time in prehistoric Africa throughout to Arab Spring
Beginning with the origins of the human race and the advance of stone age know-how, this historical past of the cradle of civilization strikes via historic and medieval instances, the importance of the Arab presence, the Muslim states, and the trans-Saharan trade. It maintains with the increase and fall of kingdom states and kingdoms sooner than the arriving of Europeans, Ghana, the Kingdoms of the woodland and Savanna, Yoruba, Oyo, Benin, Asante, Luba, Lunda, Lozil, and so forth, directly to the start of the slave alternate, and the ecu conquest and colonization of sub-Saharan Africa, the "Scramble for Africa." ultimately relocating onto the customarily sour struggles for independence from that interval of colonization and exploitation, it concludes with an overview of Africa within the twenty first century.
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Additional info for A Short History of Africa: From the Origins of the Human Race to the Arab Spring
In addition to its cultural imperialism, France has been the principal aid donor, lender, and trading partner. French businesses have dominated the industrial, commercial, and financial sectors. Through its “cooperation” accords France runs the Gabonese currency (the CFA franc), and thus makes Gabonese monetary policy. But the domination by the French companies of Gabon’s oil industry is the focus of this chapter, so it is to that sector that we shall now turn our attention. FRENCH DOMINATION BY ELF-GABON The existence of petroleum in Gabon, both onshore and offshore, had long been known to the French.
This brings us to our last factor: the corruption of African rulers. For whether or not a ruler is democratic or authoritarian, what matters is whether he collaborates or is corrupt. Robinson’s (1972) “theory of collaboration” suggests that foreign domination derives as much from indigenous collaboration, the corrupting influences of money and power, as from the behavior of exogenous actors. Collaboration is a necessary cause of African dependency. Geography, Yates T02093 01 text 42 02/12/2011 09:19 Multinational Corporations and Nationalization 43 slavery, capitalism, neocolonialism, and authoritarianism may be sufficient, when combined, to explain African dependency, but none of them is necessary to that argument.
This statistic includes unproved reserves that are known geologically but not yet proved by drilling. 9 years (Equatorial Guinea), and 12 years for the rest of Africa. This ratio, while useful, does not really answer the question of peak oil, for it assumes that production will be the same in the future, and that no new discoveries will be made. But these are variables, not certainties. The R:P ratio cannot say with certitude exactly when oil production will peak. It can, however, say that some countries will peak before others.
A Short History of Africa: From the Origins of the Human Race to the Arab Spring by Gordon Kerr
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