By Martin Polley

ISBN-10: 0203185919

ISBN-13: 9780203185919

ISBN-10: 0415185971

ISBN-13: 9780415185974

An A-Z of recent Europe 1789-1999 is a finished dictionary which defines glossy Europe via its very important occasions and other people. It contains entries on:
* key humans from Napoleon Bonaparte to Hitler
* key political and armed forces events
* influential political, social, cultural and monetary theories.
An A-Z of contemporary Europe 1789-1999 bargains obtainable and concise definitions of approximately one thousand separate goods. The publication is cross-referenced and hence offers linked hyperlinks and connections whereas the appendices include crucial additional details. The e-book comprises 5 necessary maps to lead the reader alongside.

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This was in the context of the YOUNG TURKS movement in the Ottoman empire, which was calling for a removal of foreign influences; but it also offered the Habsburg government a chance to 17 demonstrate its power and to expand the empire in the Balkans at a time when Russia was unlikely to offer much resistance, due to its recent defeat by Japan. Despite having been promised gains in the Straits in return for recognition of the annexation, Russia objected, as did Serbia and the Ottoman empire. It was seen as a contravention of the act of the Berlin Congress, and was read by some in Serbia as a step towards further Austrian IMPERIALISM in the Balkans.

The stationing of nuclear missiles in eastern Europe by the USSR and in the UK by the USA in the early 1980s diluted some of the promise of the Helsinki period. However, an improvement in relations became evident from 1985 under GORBACHEV’S leadership in the USSR, not least through his recognition that the USSR’s resources were over-committed to defence. This change resulted in the US-Soviet Intermediate Nuclear Forces Treaty of December 1987. Politically, his promotion of GLASNOST and PERESTROIKA fed into reform movements in much of eastern Europe (see REVOLUTIONS OF 1989–91): and while the USSR responded with force in some cases, as in Estonia and Latvia in early 1991, the Brezhnev doctrine was explicitly rejected.

Communism French and Italian involvement was particularly problematic for the USA, as it was seen as evidence of Soviet influence beyond the areas taken by the Red Army at the end of the SECOND WORLD WAR. In June 1948, as part of the wider clash between Stalin and TITO over Balkan policy, the Yugoslav communist party was expelled. The organisation subsequently served as a channel of communication between communist parties until the early KHRUSHCHEV period in the USSR. In April 1956, Khrushchev dissolved it, both as a bridge-building exercise with Tito, and in order to demonstrate to the USA that the USSR did not plan to infiltrate non-communist countries through front parties.

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A-Z of Modern Europe, 1789-1999 by Martin Polley


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