By Edward F. Fern
In particular written for researchers and scholars with a basic wisdom of concentration staff learn, the booklet provides quite a few examples of what researchers may still and shouldn't do in designing their very own learn initiatives. additionally, it seriously examines the boundaries of concentration teams and indicates tips to use concentration teams for nontraditional learn initiatives.
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The traditional male role dictates that men should appear to be 40 ADVANCED FOCUS GROUP RESEARCH strong and self-confident and successful and avoid all activities thought to be feminine. , 1993). Women tend to agree more with others, and they demonstrate more prosocial behaviors, such as relieving group tension and showing group solidarity when they interact with others (Carli, 1989). , giving opinions, suggestions, and directions) than prosocial behaviors. These normative differences are also consistent with the previously discussed differences in cultural value orientations.
These expectancies are internalized and subsequently used as guidelines for one's own self-disclosing behavior. In other words, we expect women to disclose more than men because we believe it is more appropriate for women to disclose more than men do. These kinds of attributions may reinforce the notion that we receive more personal information from women than from men whether it is true or not (Hill & Stull, 1987). 5 Cultural Value Orientation and Personality Differences Within cultures are many individual variations in cultural identity.
Third, collectivists may feel more comfortable speaking in front of a small group than do individualists. Hamilton, Blumenfeld, Akoah, and Miura (1991) found that Japanese teachers (collectivists) spoke to the group 51 % of the time and to individuals 47% of the time, whereas American teachers (individualists) spoke to individuals 72% of the time and to the group 22% of the time. , race/ethnicity) may be more important in social perceptions and interpersonal attraction among collectivists than individualists.
Advanced Focus Group Research by Edward F. Fern
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