By George Marbach, Bernard Tourte, Melanie Alspaugh

ISBN-10: 3908495105

ISBN-13: 9783908495109

Translated and tailored from the French by means of Melanie Alspaugh 2002, Speleo initiatives, structure 17 x 25cm, hardbound English, with illustrations, 320 Pages ISBN 3-908495-10-5 Nonfiction caving, rescue and vertical innovations manual.

The long-awaited English variation of the vintage French handbook, a definitive resource for vertical and horizontal caving concepts between cavers world wide, is now translated and up to date from the 3rd French variation (2000). whereas it emphasizes vertical caving and rigging practices, it additionally provides new and thorough discussions on many different elements of cave exploration together with: gear requisites and use, education, nutrition, and psychological health and wellbeing, vacationing successfully in the course of the cave, off and on rope, systematic prospection equipment, emergency self and small-party rescue.

Whether you cave on or off rope, within the excessive mountains or within the equatorial jungle, as a speleo-tourist or a hardcore explorer, this ebook presents crucial info on easy methods to optimize your potency and confirm your final safeguard within the difficult surroundings of vertical caves.

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The equator is a circle centered at the pole. The two projections most commonly used for polar charts are the modified Lambert conformal and the polar stereographic. When a directional gyro is used as a directional reference, the track of the craft is approximately a great circle. A desirable chart is one on which a great circle is represented as a straight line with a constant scale and with angles correctly represented. These requirements are not met entirely by any single projection, but they are approximated by both the modified Lambert conformal and the polar stereographic.

These charts, even though of recent date, may be based on foreign charts of considerably earlier date. Further, new editions of the foreign chart will not necessarily result in a new edition of the DMAHTC reproduction. In these cases, the foreign chart is the better chart to use. A revised or corrected print contains corrections which have been published in Notice to Mariners. These corrected prints do not supersede a current edition. The date of the revision is given, along with the latest Notice to Mariners to which the chart has been corrected.

If a pole is the point of tangency, the meridians appear as straight radial Figure 318a. An equatorial orthographic projection. 31 lines and the parallels as equally spaced concentric circles. If the plane is tangent at some point other than a pole, the concentric circles represent distances from the point of tangency. In this case, meridians and parallels appear as curves. The projection can be used to portray the entire earth, the point 180° from the point of tangency appearing as the largest of the concentric circles.

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