By Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski
Concentrating on source information in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) layout, purposes of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in clinical examine covers the primary of FPGAs and their performance. It explores a bunch of purposes, starting from small one-chip laboratory platforms to large-scale purposes in "big science." The booklet first describes a variety of FPGA assets, together with good judgment components, RAM, multipliers, microprocessors, and content-addressable reminiscence. It then provides rules and techniques for controlling assets, equivalent to approach sequencing, place constraints, and highbrow estate cores. the rest of the publication illustrates examples of purposes in high-energy physics, house, and radiobiology. through the textual content, the authors remind designers to be aware of assets on the making plans, layout, and implementation phases of an FPGA program, on the way to decrease using constrained silicon assets and thereby decrease method rate. offering useful information on an array of FPGA program examples, this ebook presents an obtainable assessment of using FPGAs in facts acquisition, sign processing, and transmission. It indicates how FPGAs are hired in laboratory functions and the way they're versatile, reasonably cheap choices to advertisement facts acquisition structures. internet source A assisting web site at http://scipp.ucsc.edu/~hartmut/FPGA bargains extra information on FPGA programming and utilization. the location comprises layout components of the case reports from the e-book, together with VHDL code, designated schematics of chosen initiatives, photos, and display photographs.
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Additional info for Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research
However, a division, a multiplication, and a subtraction are necessary to calculate the temperature. Perhaps the simplest implementation is to keep two counters for the two time intervals and to read the values of the two counters into a microprocessor. The arithmetic operations necessary to calculate the temperature can be done in the microprocessor. If the temperature is to be calculated in the FPGA, not only time interval measurement but also arithmetic operations must be carefully planned. Yes, there are divider and multiplier macro function libraries, but they are normally for many fast computations and are resource heavy.
For example, if the sampling frequency is fs, the signal components with frequencies nfs will appear as DC offsets in the sampled sequence. In general, higher-frequency components will contribute to the sampled sequence as if they are low-frequency components. According to sampling theorem , a continuous signal can be correctly reproduced with the sampled sequence only if the continuous signal is band limited. The cutoff frequency of the band-limiting signal must be less than half of the sampling frequency, that is, f < fs/2.
The bin number K is used as the read address to read out the contents of the bin and, meanwhile, K and DV are temporarily stored in a set of D-type flip-flop registers after the first clock edge. Then, the content of the addressed bin is read out from Y, and it is increased by 1. At the same time, write address WA and write enable signal WE are presented at the write port. After the second clock edge, the value (Y+1) is written back into the addressed bin. Histogram booking consists of three essential operations: (1) reading out the content of the addressed bin, (2) incrementing the content by 1, and (3) writing the incremented value back to the addressed bin.
Applications of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays in Scientific Research by Hartmut F.-W. Sadrozinski
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