By Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins

ISBN-10: 019957068X

ISBN-13: 9780199570683

While taxes are brought on carbon and effort, and the profit is used to lessen different taxes, will a good impact be completed either for the surroundings and for the economic climate? In 1990 Finland was once the 1st state to introduce a tax on CO2. Later, Sweden, Denmark, Netherlands, Slovenia, Germany and the united kingdom go well with with tax reforms that shifted taxation from labour to carbon and effort. through the years, CO[{2} and effort taxes have steadily been raised, in order that in Europe taxes of greater than 25 billion Euros a 12 months were shifted. This e-book examines carbon-energy taxation intimately and appears at tax moving programmes for reducing different taxes. It bargains wide research at the foundation of ancient information and seeks to reply to vital questions for policy-making, similar to: What was once the effect of tax moving for monetary functionality and competitiveness? by means of how a lot have been emissions of CO[{2} decreased? may possibly energy-intensive industries reduce extra down on their gasoline call for or did they unfastened industry stocks? To what volume used to be there "leakage" from Europe, in order that construction and CO[{2} emissions have been shifted to different international locations or areas with out CO[{2} -abatement coverage? using exact and unique information, together with sector-specific strength costs and taxes, in addition to using complex statistical thoughts, akin to co-integration research and panel-regression thoughts in addition to the time-series expected macro-economic version E3ME, make this a very accomplished quantity. at the foundation of the teachings realized in Europe, this quantity shows how carbon-energy taxation might usefully be mixed with emissions buying and selling, and discusses implications for destiny overseas weather coverage, together with how the IPCC options for a steady escalation in carbon fee may be finished whereas fighting carbon leakage.

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Leakage is said to occur if, as a result of abatement policies, CO2 emissions are simply displaced to other countries and regions, without such abatement polices. In Chapter 8 Barker et al. review the literature on carbon leakage and observe that studies of the effects of the Kyoto Protocol have shown carbon leakage rates (typically from tax and permit schemes with lump-sum revenues recycling) to be in the range of 5–20 per cent, using static computable general equilibrium models. html>. 19 Pricing of Carbon in Europe production.

The chapter identifies what appears to be a significant difference between the impacts of increased energy prices and increased carbon-energy taxes; whereas increases in energy prices influence unit energy costs, such impacts are considerably smaller for energy taxes. While the analysis does not provide support for a strong double dividend, it cannot confirm the existence of firmly negative economic impacts from ETR. Andersen and Speck in Chapter 6 review in detail the mitigation and compensation arrangements for energy-intensive industries in the seven countries.

Goodstein (2003) generally questions the basic assumption of the tax interaction effect that higher prices will reduce labour supply. Quoting earlier empirical literature based on micro-data, this relationship is found to be ambiguous. Higher prices may lead to an increase in labour supply if dual earner families are considered. Workers may increase labour supply partly because they overestimate the reduction in family income generated by the price increases (cf. Gustafson and Hadley, 1989, quoted in Goodstein, 2003).

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Carbon-Energy Taxation: Lessons from Europe by Mikael Skou Andersen, Paul Ekins


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