By Jürgen Kranz
Comparison is a strong cognitive examine software in technological know-how because it does "across stories" to judge similarities and variations, e.g. throughout taxa or illnesses. This ebook bargains with comparative examine on plant ailment epidemics. Comparisons are performed in in particular designed experiments or with posterior analyses. From the it appears limitless range of epidemics of 1000s of illnesses, comparative epidemiology may well finally extract a couple of uncomplicated varieties. those findings are extremely important to crop defense. Plant ailment epidemiology, being the ecological department of plant pathology, can also be of price to ecologists, but in addition epidemiologists within the parts of animal or human ailments might locate attention-grabbing effects, acceptable to their parts of research.
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Confidence interval (for time and space related studies), scatter diagrammes, residuals. Heterogeneity affects the validity of results with pooled estimators and the risk of wrong conclusions can be high. Blettner et a!. (1997) recommend sensitivity tests to enhance the stability of the estimator. 2 Data Acquisition for Comparative Epidemiology 31 without the figure. For details of these statistical procedures and equations, we refer to Hunter and Schmidt ( 1990) and Dickers in and Berlin ( 1992).
Vander Plank (1963, 1975; Vanderplank 1982) introduced mathematics to epidemiology and contributed further basic concepts. For example, the differentialdifference equations to describe epidemic growth are now widely used to model epidemics. Van der Plank ( 1963) also deduced the various types of infection rates, descriptive terms like "simple interest disease", "compound interest disease", threshold theorem, cryptic error and endemicity (Sect. 1). His concept of focal and general epidemics (Sect.
For the first inroads an approximate answer from meta-analysis to the right question may be better than nothing. Meta-analysis may at least improve the quality of published and unpublished studies on certain facets in epidemiology. 9). However, doubts about the quality and appropriateness of studies included in a meta analysis can be checked by formal tests of heterogeneity. On the other hand, if scientific rigor is maintained in MA one would, over time, expect consistent and stable results (Dickersin and Berlin 1992).
Comparative Epidemiology of Plant Diseases by Jürgen Kranz
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