By J. S. Whitmore (auth.)

ISBN-10: 9048153336

ISBN-13: 9789048153336

ISBN-10: 9401595623

ISBN-13: 9789401595629

At final, built-in administration of drought on farms is handled in a single complete publication. even if drought is a hugely variable, near-universal common phenomenon which has repercussions on a country's water and foodstuff provides and plenty of different sectors of the economic climate, there are lots of methods of heading off, resisting and mitigating the consequences of drought. Pro-active preparedness involves utilizing the foundations of chance administration to improve the drought resistance of a farm systematically, and to have auxiliary contingency plans on the prepared to be used in the course of surprisingly lengthy droughts. The e-book presents instruments for those options because it covers the administration of water, soils, plants, rangeland, fodder and farm animals, and lots of different drought-related issues.
Audience: This publication could be a big resource of data for collage and school employees and scholars in agricultural sciences, water and land use, environmental administration, geography and probability administration, and in addition farmers, agricultural advisors and coverage makers.

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Although small in quantity, most of this soil's moisture can be withdrawn easily by plants, the range of available moisture therefore being 10-4 = 6 per cent (per unit weight of oven-dried soil). Because of its greater water retention, a clayey soil may have a field capacity of, say, 45 per cent but because the moisture is so tightly bound to the minute soil particles and in the very fine pores, plants may have wilted permanently by the time the soil moisture content has dropped to, say, 30 per cent.

These soils are often deep and very porous even on steep slopes. As in deep sandy or gravelly soil comprising myriads of single, coarse particles with large interstices, water infiltration rates in tropical soils tend to remain high even during quite prolonged rain, as the profile usually drains rapidly to underground aquifers which, in turn, often sustain the perennial base flow of rivers. In finer soils - loams and clays - porosity and infiltration capacity depend on the degree to which soil particles have been bonded into stable aggregates which contain small pores but are separated by larger pores through which water and air can move freely.

The system has the merit of flexibility in that once the quantity of available soil has been assessed, and a decision taken as to the height of the mounds, a farmer can choose the best number, size, shape and spacing of mounds to meet his requirements. Crops which have proved suitable for mound culture include sorghum, millet, cowpeas, maize and cassava (most of which rank as fairly drought-resistant), and there are doubtless many other options. Sometimes crop residues are incorporated into the mounds to enhance soil fertility, but the decomposition of excessive amounts of organic matter in the soil may initially induce a temporary nitrogen deficiency which should be corrected.

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Drought Management on Farmland by J. S. Whitmore (auth.)

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