By Celina Mikolajczak, Michael Kahn, Kevin White, Richard Thomas Long
Lithium-Ion Batteries chance and Use review examines using lithium-ion batteries and cells inside of patron, commercial and transportation items, and analyzes the capability risks linked to their lengthy use. This ebook additionally surveys the appropriate codes and criteria for lithium-ion expertise.
Lithium-Ion Batteries danger and Use overview is designed for practitioners as a reference advisor for lithium-ion batteries and cells. Researchers operating in a comparable box also will locate the ebook valuable.
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Lithium-Ion Batteries probability and Use review examines the use of lithium-ion batteries and cells inside patron, business and transportation items, and analyzes the capability risks linked to their lengthy use. This booklet additionally surveys the appropriate codes and criteria for lithium-ion expertise.
Additional info for Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment
6 Ah (95 Wh), and utilize complex protection electronics. Notebook computers represent the largest population of relatively complex lithium-ion batteries in the commercial market. Most of these packs contain between six and twelve 18650 cells connected in series and parallel: the most common pack configuration involves 3- or 4-series elements, each element consisting of blocks of two cells connected in parallel (3s, 2p or 4s, 2p packs). As a result, for most consumer electronics, multi-cell applications, designers follow recommendations set forth in IEEE 1625, ‘‘Standard for Rechargeable Batteries for Multi-Cell Mobile Computing Devices,’’ and apply battery protection electronics hardware developed for notebook computer applications.
30 It remains to be seen whether refurbishment of packs will be practical or economical,31 as cells must generally be well matched to provide good performance in battery packs, and aged cells are particularly difficult to match effectively. In addition, for refurbished pack safety, the issue of determining when a cell should be retired will need to be resolved. Although applications for large format lithium-ion battery packs remain fairly niche at the time of this writing, considerable momentum has developed for using lithium-ion cells to replace NiCad and lead acid batteries.
5 User-replaceable batteries, as opposed to technician-replaceable batteries, are subject to additional test requirements, including flaming particle and projectile tests. 2. Note that many of the tests in the two standards are identical. UL is in the process of developing or updating a number of additional standards for lithium-ion battery applications including: • UL Subject 1973 Batteries for use in Light Electric Rail (LER) applications and stationary applications • UL Subject 2271 Batteries for use in Light Electric Vehicle (LEV) Applications • UL Subject 2575 Standard for Lithium Ion Battery Systems for Use in Electric Power Tool and Motor Operated, Heating and Lighting Appliances • UL Subject 2580 Batteries for use in electric vehicles 5 UL 1642, ‘‘Lithium Batteries,’’ 1995, p.
Lithium-Ion Batteries Hazard and Use Assessment by Celina Mikolajczak, Michael Kahn, Kevin White, Richard Thomas Long
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