By Aharon Kantorovich

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3 Specimen Preparation 19 however, cannot be clearly classified, include laminating, film blowing or subsequent thermal treatment (tempering). Regardless of the type of shaping process, energy-elastic, entropy-elastic and viscous deformations peculiar to the material occur during production. , during the injection and flow process, stretching and orienting of macromolecules, as well as by cooling and curing sequences in the tool. They also have a decisive effect on the subsequent internal state of the component part or specimen.

To test means to determine whether the acquired value including their measurement uncertainty meet one or more specified requirements (tolerances or error limits). Since measurable characteristics are acquired as value by most modern processes of material and quality testing and compared with corresponding requirements, “measuring testing” is defined as the opposite of “counting testing”. Important measures for ensuring reproducibility of testing methods include adjustment, calibration and gauging.

When parts with complex geometrical shapes are produced, it should be noted that especially the bottom sides are subject to increased thermal load due to the filling, compacting and heating sequence. To ensure identification of the orientation of the specimen in the die, the die should be marked on the inside. 3 Specimen Preparation 27 from the tool no later than 30 s after opening. , due to shrinkage, storage under plane load can be undertaken until cooling is complete. To avoid excessive cooling rates, the loading weights should have low heat conductivity.

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Philosophy Of Science - From Justification To Explanation by Aharon Kantorovich

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