By Stephen D. Behrendt
In his diary, Antera Duke (ca.1735-ca.1809) wrote the one surviving eyewitness account of the slave exchange via an African service provider. a pacesetter in past due eighteenth-century previous Calabar, a cluster of Efik-speaking groups within the pass River area, he resided in Duke city, forty-five miles from the Atlantic Ocean in what's now southeast Nigeria. His diary, written in alternate English from 1785 to 1788, is a candid account of lifestyle in an African neighborhood on the peak of Calabar's in a foreign country trade. It offers precious details on previous Calabar's monetary task either with different African businessmen and with ecu send captains who arrived to exchange for slaves, produce, and provisions. This re-creation of Antera's diary, the 1st in fifty years, attracts at the newest scholarship to put the diary in its historic context. Introductory essays set the level for the previous Calabar of Antera Duke's lifetime, discover the diversity of trades, from slaves to supply, during which he rose to prominence, and stick with Antera on buying and selling missions throughout an in depth advertisement hinterland. The essays hint the payment and improvement of the cities that comprised previous Calabar and survey the community's social and political constitution, rivalries between households, sacrifices of slaves, and witchcraft ordeals. This variation reproduces Antera's unique trade-English diary with a translation into average English on dealing with pages, besides wide annotation. The editors draw on Antera's first language, Efik, to light up his diary. The Diary of Antera Duke furnishes a uniquely useful resource for the historical past of precolonial Nigeria and the Atlantic slave alternate, and this new version enriches our realizing of it.
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Extra resources for The Diary of Antera Duke, an Eighteenth-Century African Slave Trader
16 Two seventeenth-century reports record names of Cross River individuals and provide further information on the Duke family. 1. Eﬁk settlement dates at Creek Town and the Duke ward lineage Name Years Remarks Efiom Ekpo Okoho Efiom (daughter) Efiom Okoho Ekpo Efiom Edem Ekpo1 Efiom Edem2 ca. 1540s–ca. 1610s ca. 1590s–ca. 1660s ca. 1610s–ca. 1680s ca. 1660s–ca. 1730s ca. 1700s–July 4, 1786 ca. 1755–Oct. 14, 1834 Cofounder of Creek Town Mother of illegitimate twins Cofounder of Duke Town Son of Efiom Okoho Duke Ephraim in the diary “Great Duke Ephraim” 1Death date documented by Antera Duke in his diary.
14 There are no tombstone inscriptions of Eﬁk until the twentieth century. 16 Two seventeenth-century reports record names of Cross River individuals and provide further information on the Duke family. 1. Eﬁk settlement dates at Creek Town and the Duke ward lineage Name Years Remarks Efiom Ekpo Okoho Efiom (daughter) Efiom Okoho Ekpo Efiom Edem Ekpo1 Efiom Edem2 ca. 1540s–ca. 1610s ca. 1590s–ca. 1660s ca. 1610s–ca. 1680s ca. 1660s–ca. 1730s ca. 1700s–July 4, 1786 ca. 1755–Oct. 14, 1834 Cofounder of Creek Town Mother of illegitimate twins Cofounder of Duke Town Son of Efiom Okoho Duke Ephraim in the diary “Great Duke Ephraim” 1Death date documented by Antera Duke in his diary.
23 Horsburgh also paid 40 coppers’ comey to Robin Honestie and 35 coppers to Robin John. In documenting these families for the ﬁrst time, the supercargo may have established that the Honesty (Creek Town) and Robin John (Old Town) wards had developed by 1720. If so, there were then seven wards in the three Old Calabar villages. The supercargo’s accounts from 1720 also tell us that eight Eﬁk families dominated Old Calabar about ﬁfteen years before Antera Duke’s birth. ”Among the Eﬁk families we have identiﬁed, the distribution is as follows: King John’s family (136 coppers); the Ambo family (129 coppers); Duke Ephraim and Young Ephraim (103 coppers); the Henshaws (87 coppers); the Robin family (72 coppers); the Cobham family (63 coppers); the Honestie family (44 coppers); and Robin John (35 coppers).
The Diary of Antera Duke, an Eighteenth-Century African Slave Trader by Stephen D. Behrendt
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