By Charles Issawi

ISBN-10: 0231034431

ISBN-13: 9780231034432

ISBN-10: 0231083777

ISBN-13: 9780231083775

ISBN-10: 0415379989

ISBN-13: 9780415379984

The industrial background of the center East and North Africa is kind of outstanding. this can be an axiomatic assertion, however the very nature of the commercial adjustments that experience stemmed without delay from the consequences of oil assets in those parts has tended to vague longterm styles of monetary swap and the basic transformation of center japanese and North African economies and societies over the last 200 years. during this examine Professor Issawi examines and explains the improvement of those economies given that 1800, focusing relatively at the problem posed by way of the use and next decline of Western financial and political domination and the center japanese reaction to it. The ebook beg ins with an research of the consequences of overseas intervention within the quarter: the growth of alternate, the improvement of shipping networks, the inflow of overseas capital and ensuing integration into overseas advertisement and monetary networks. It is going directly to learn the neighborhood reaction to those exterior forces: migration inside, to and from the quarter, inhabitants development, urbanization and alterations in residing criteria, shifts in agricultural construction and land tenure and the advance of an business region. Professor Issawi discusses the an important results of the expansion of oil and oil-related industries in a separate bankruptcy, and eventually assesses the most probably earnings and losses during this lengthy interval for either the international locations within the quarter and the Western powers. He has drawn on lengthy adventure and an incredible quantity of fabric in surveying the interval, and offers a transparent and penetrating survey of an awfully complicated sector.

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The industrial historical past of the center East and North Africa is kind of awesome. this can be an axiomatic assertion, however the very nature of the commercial alterations that experience stemmed without delay from the results of oil assets in those parts has tended to vague longterm styles of monetary switch and the basic transformation of center jap and North African economies and societies during the last 2 hundred years.

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EHT:80-83 and Pamuk 1978; Iraq and Syria. Kalla 1969 and EHFC. 9 million rupees. and in 1851-58 6 mil1ion. ::>uld be added some 600,000 for land trade. By 1875-76 total sea and land trade stood at 35 million rupees. or about [3 million, and by 1903-4 [6 million (Hunter 1877:90; Great Britain, Admiralty 1916:190). The trade of the whole Persian Gulf with Bombay. 000 in 1854-58; IOC, 419 vols. 39-106, and tab~e in EHFC. 2 million and exports at $273,000, the balance being made up Jy gold and silver.

Third, at least in North Africa and probably elsewhere, there was the belief that exports impoverished a country and that sales to infidels were immoral; 4 it may be recalled that, earlier, popes and emperors had banned the export of war materials (broadly interpreted) to Muslims, for much the same reasons. Finally, the Ottomans seem to have held that export taxes were fairer than import and that they could "make the pressure fallon the foreign consumer," which may sometimes have been true. S Traditionally, the Ottoman Empire had levied duties of 3 percent on both imports and exports, rates that received international recognition in the treaties of capitulations, notably the one with England in 1675; Iran had similar arrangements.

K. exports, cotton's share being small, and since then they have become negligible or negative. Building materials such as bricks, tiles, cement, and glass also increased sharply with the change in fashion toward Western-style housing, but never became a significant part of the total. They too have been replaced by local production. Of the traditional colonial goods, coffee and sugar were imported in rapidly increasing quantities in the course of the 19th century. Teadrinking was picked up by the Iranians and Turks from Russia, and came to the other countries mainly from India, through British traders.

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