By Gary Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.) Larson

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Another way of tackling the problem is to use principles and methods which allow the discrepancies between the model and the real process to be explicitly considered. That is, to try to analyze and design the controller without using a precise mathematical model of the plant; to try to obtain results which are not only valid for the nominal model but also for a given range of models of the plant, and consequently for the real process. When designing controllers using linear and time invariant models of the plant, there are two possible approaches for contemplating the uncertainties in the system model and the disturbances around it [52].

1 Adaptive Control Structures Adaptive controllers have traditionally been classified into one of the following families: model reference adaptive controllers (MRAC) and self-tuning controllers (STC) . hat indicates how the process output Y (t) should behave ideally Y m (t) for a particular reference signal R( t) . The control system can be considered to be composed of two loops: an inner loop formed by the plant and the controller and an external loop which changes the controller parameters in such a way that the process follows the model.

2 Control methods in the frequency domain Frequency control schemes are based on the use of graphic methods and on the representation of the system performance in the frequency domain. These methodologies were developed during the thirties and forties and yet they still apply today. Acceptable results can be obtained with them for the four problems described at the beginning of the section (stability, noise immunity, specifications of the closed loop transitory performance and improvement of robustness to variations in the plant parameters).

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Aquatic and Wetland Vascular Plants of the Northern Great Plains by Gary Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.) Larson

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