By Graham Palmer

ISBN-10: 3319029398

ISBN-13: 9783319029399

ISBN-10: 3319029401

ISBN-13: 9783319029405

With quickly declining bills and doubtless limitless sunshine, the alternative of sunlight in Australia turns out visible. but regardless of its many merits, houses with sunlight stay thoroughly depending on the electrical energy grid for trustworthy provide, which in Australia implies usually coal-fired new release. certainly, even international locations that experience invested seriously in sunlight, comparable to Spain and Germany, were not able to deflect the trajectory of fossil gas dependence.

The purposes for this obvious paradox are assorted, and this booklet presents a deeper and extra nuanced realizing of the sensible functions of photovoltaics (PV) in sleek electrical energy structures. whereas the traditional life-cycle review (LCA) limitations as prescribed through the IEA-PVPS offer a constant technique for evaluating evolving PV applied sciences, the slim limitations exclude many severe downstream power charges. equally, basic price comparisons of PV as opposed to traditional strength resources put out of your mind the numerous monetary and effort bills of intermittency and grid integration. but disbursed garage, which may offer in all probability useful community help, is usually given a low precedence by means of advocates of solar.

Treating PV as an extension of, instead of instead for, the fossil gas company allows a extra effective dialogue of PV’s strength function in electrical energy iteration. The sunburnt state of Australia, which has a latest electrical energy process, is a perfect case research for exploring the potential for sunlight PV. With a spotlight on rooftop sunlight, strength garage, grid integration, and electrical energy approach concerns, Energy in Australia deals priceless insights into the sensible demanding situations of solar energy. even supposing many nationwide economies are already confronting a downward development in power go back on funding (EROI) of oil and fuel from either traditional and unconventional assets, the large-scale deployment of low-emission strength resources that lie lower than a severe minimal EROI threshold may well finally turn out counter-productive.

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Extra resources for Energy in Australia: Peak Oil, Solar Power, and Asia’s Economic Growth

Example text

9 Declining Productivity of Network Assets The issue in relation to electricity networks is that a peakier load curve reduces the productive use of assets, therefore increasing costs. Since network cost recovery is based on energy consumption rather than contribution to peak demand, the cost of a deteriorating load curve is smeared across all consumers by rising tariffs, regardless of their contribution to peak load. This is equivalent to charging all motorists a per-mile charge whether they travel on congested roads or not.

Myers et al. (2010) report similar results in a study in Wisconsin. Under current regulatory arrangements, incentives are structured to encourage maximum annual energy production rather than provide network support—maximum annual output is derived from north-facing panels. The use of single- or twin-axis trackers will flatten and expand the output profile. However, these are unsuitable for household use and PV in built-up locations. The issue in relation to the low-voltage distribution network is that homes with PV remain completely dependent on the network—indeed, the very fact that PV units are able to export power into the grid and earn a feed-in tariff implies that PV systems make use of the network.

Sustainability. 2012;4(7):1525–60. Palmer G. Household solar photovoltaics: supplier of marginal abatement, or primary source of low-emission power? Sustainability. 2013;5(4):1406–42. PE International. Life cycle CO2e assessment of low carbon cars 2020–2030. Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership: 2012. Raupach MR, Marland G, Ciais P, Le Quéré C, Canadell JG, Klepper G, Field CB. Global and regional drivers of accelerating CO2 emissions. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2007;104(24):10288–93. Sandiford M. Who’s afraid of solar PV?

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