By Hooman Peimani
This publication sheds mild on how international warming has prompted the continuing environmental catastrophe within the Arctic, specifically its melting. This improvement, if left unabated, can have a massive damaging environmental impression, not just at the Arctic itself, yet at the whole planet, together with the worsening of worldwide warming and emerging sea degrees. The latter is a huge danger to all island international locations and all international locations having coastlines with open seas with significant environmental, social, monetary, political and military/security implications. The Arctic melting is bringing approximately demanding situations whereas commencing doorways for yes possibilities. those are the accessibility of the region's huge oil, gasoline and coal reserves and minerals, together with infrequent earth components. they're fashionable either within the Arctic littoral states (Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Norway, Russia and united states) and the higher Arctic nations (Iceland, Finland and Sweden) in addition to in different components of the realm. particularly, significant oil and gasoline importers (China, India, Japan and South Korea) have an interest within the Arctic power assets, the most non-regional nations with an ability to interact within the sector. the most obvious value of the local strength and mineral assets makes the department of the quarter one of the neighborhood nations the most important. The melting of the Arctic ice also will bring about the supply for a minimum of a number of months a yr of a Northern Sea direction and a Northwest Passage connecting Europe to North the USA and the North-Eastern a part of Asia. the significance of those northern routes and the Arctic mineral and effort assets is contributing to a becoming army presence of customarily the us and Russia during this area, that may result in an palms race. This booklet bargains precious insights at the matters that experience grave implications for strength safety and geopolitics within the arctic.
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Cambridge Journal [Online]. org/action/displayAbstract? fromPage=online&aid=5658876 [accessed 5/11/2011]. Glasby, GP and YL Votekhovsky (2009). Arctic Russia: Minerals and mineral resources. Geochemical Society. ru/natural-resources/ other-minerals [accessed 30/10/2011]. Grim new prediction: Arctic Sea disappear by 2015 (2011). Alaska Dispatch, 20 November. com/article/grim-newprediction-arctic-sea-ice-could-disappear-2015 [accessed 30/10/2011]. Handwerk, B (2004). S. coasts by 2099. National Geographic, 9 November.
March 5, 2013 11:59 9in x 6in The Arctic: Geopolitics, International Relations and Energy Security SECTION I IS THE ARCTIC MELTING? 23 b1342-R-ch02 March 5, 2013 11:59 9in x 6in The Arctic: Geopolitics, International Relations and Energy Security This page intentionally left blank 24 b1342-R-ch02 March 5, 2013 11:59 9in x 6in The Arctic: Geopolitics, International Relations and Energy Security b1342-R-ch02 2 FROM WHITE TO BLUE: THE SHRINKING ARCTIC CRYOSPHERE Shawn J. 1. INTRODUCTION The global cryosphere encompasses the world’s snow and ice, including glaciers and ice sheets, sea ice, lake and river ice, permafrost, seasonal snow, and ice crystals in the atmosphere.
UNEP/GRID-Arendal Maps and Graphics Library. Available at: http://maps. no/go/graphic/mean-snow-cover-extent-in-the-northern-hemisphere-1966–2006. Updated to 2010 with data from the Rutgers University Global Snow Lab, http://climate. edu/snowcover [accessed 7 April 2011]. f Fetterer, F, K Knowles, W Meier and M Savoie (2002, updated 2011). Sea Ice Index. Boulder, CO: National Snow and Ice Data Center. html. [accessed 7 April 2011]. 5,6 Glacier and ice sheet retreat are of particular concern, as the transfer of ice from the land to the ocean has become the leading driver of global sea level rise over the past 20 years.
Energy Security and Geopolitics in the Arctic : Challenges and Opportunities in the 21st Century by Hooman Peimani
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